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LeeDistinguished Professor

Ph.D., 1975, University of California at San Diego/ Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Ocean carbon cycle, marine geochemistry of organic compounds, organic and inorganic nitrogen-cycle biochemistry silicate and carbonate biomineralization

Faculty Profile


Complete List of Publications

1  Munk, M. E., C. L. Kulkarni, C. Lee and P. Brown (1970) Conformational effects in electron impact induced elimination reactions in the 1,2-diphenyl-ethanol system.  Tet. Letts. 16: 1377-1380.

2  Lee, C. and J. L. Bada (1975) Amino acids in equatorial Pacific Ocean water. Earth Planet. Sci. Letts. 26: 61-68.

3  Lee, C., J. L. Bada and E. Peterson (1976) Amino acids in modern and fossil woods.  Nature 259: 183-186.

4  Lee, C. and J. L. Bada (1977) Dissolved amino acids in the equatorial Pacific, the Sargasso Sea, and Biscayne Bay.  Limnol. Oceanogr. 22: 502-510.

5  Lee, C., R. B. Gagosian and J. W. Farrington (1977) Sterol diagenesis in Recent sediments from Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts.  Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 41: 985-992.

6  Bada, J. L. and C. Lee (1977) Decomposition and alteration of organic compounds dissolved in seawater.  Mar. Chem. 5: 523-534.

7  Lee, C., J. W. Farrington and R. B. Gagosian (1979) Sterol geochemistry of sediments from the western North Atlantic Ocean and adjacent coastal areas.  Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 43: 35-46.

8  Gagosian, R. B., C. Lee and F. Heinzer (1979) Processes controlling the stanol/sterol ratio in Black Sea seawater and sediments. Nature 280: 574-576.

9  Hobbie, J. E. and C. Lee (1980) Microbial production of extracellular material: Importance in benthic ecology.  In: K. R. Tenore and B. C. Coull (eds) Marine Benthic Dynamics, pp. 341-346. Belle Baruch Symposium in Marine Science. Univ. S. Carolina Press.

10  Lee, C., R. B. Gagosian and J. W. Farrington (1980) Geochemistry of sterols in sediments from the Black Sea and the southwest African Shelf and slope. Org. Geochem. 2: 103-113.

11  Lee, C., R. W. Howarth and B. L. Howes (1980) Sterols in decomposing  Spartina alterniflora  and the use of ergosterol in estimating the contribution of fungi to detrital nitrogen. Limnol. Oceanogr. 25: 290-303.

12  Wakeham, S. G., J. W. Farrington, R. B. Gagosian, C. Lee, H. DeBaar, G. E. Nigrelli, B. W. Tripp, S. O. Smith and N. M. Frew (1980) Fluxes of organic matter from a sediment trap experiment in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Nature 286: 798-800.

13  Gagosian, R. B., S. O. Smith, C. Lee, J. W. Farrington and N. M. Frew (1980) Steroid transformations in Recent marine sediments.  In:  A. G. Douglas and J. R. Maxwell (eds) Advances in Organic Geochemistry 1979, pp. 407-419. Pergamon.

14  Lee, C. and C. Cronin (1982) The vertical flux of particulate organic nitrogen in the sea: Decomposition of amino acids in the Peru upwelling area and the equatorial Atlantic. J. Mar. Res. 41: 227-251.

15  Lee, C., S. G. Wakeham, and J. W. Farrington (1983) Variations in the composition of particulate organic matter in a time-series sediment trap. Mar. Chem. 13: 181-194.

16  Lee, C. and B. L. Olson (1984) Dissolved, exchangeable and bound aliphatic amines in marine sediments: initial results. Org. Geochem. 6: 259-263.

17  Henrichs, S. M., J. W. Farrington, and C. Lee (1984) Peru upwelling region sediments near 15°S – II. Dissolved free and total hydrolyzable amino acids. Limnol. Oceanogr. 29: 20-34.

18  Lee, C. and C. Cronin (1984) Particulate amino acids in the sea: Effects of primary productivity and biological decomposition. J. Mar. Res. 42: 1075-1097.

19  Wakeham, S. G., C. Lee, J. W. Farrington, and R. B. Gagosian (1984) Biogeochemistry of particulate organic matter in the oceans: Results from sediment trap experiments. Deep-Sea Res. 31: 509-528.

20  Andersson, A., C. Lee, F. Azam and Å. Hagström (1985) Release of amino acids and  inorganic nutrients by heterotrophic marine microflagellates. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 23: 99-106.

21  Cole, J. J. and C. Lee (1986) Rapid metabolism of non-protein amino acids in sea water. Biogeochemistry 2: 299-312.

22  Whelan, J.K., R. Oremland, M. Tarafa, R. Smith, R. Howarth, and C. Lee (1986) Evidence for sulfate-reducing and methane-producing microorganisms in sediments from Sites 618, 619, and 622. pp. 767-775, In: Bouma, A.H., Coleman, J.M., Meyer, A.W., et al., Init. Repts. DSDP, Vol/ 96, Washington (U.S. Government Printing Office).

23  Lee, C., J. A. McKenzie, and M. Sturm (1987) Carbon-isotope fractionation and changes in flux of organic matter resulting from biological productivity during a sediment-trap experiment in Greifensee, Switzerland. Limnol. Oceanogr. 32: 83-96.

24  Van Neste, A., R. A. Duce, and C. Lee. (1987) Methylamines in the marine atmosphere. Geophys. Res. Letts. 14: 711-714.

25  McNichol, A. P., C. Lee, and E. R. M. Druffel. (1988) Carbon cycling in coastal sediments: 1. A quantitative estimate of the remineralization of organic carbon in the sediments of Buzzards Bay, MA. Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta, 52: 1531-1543.

26  Lee, C., S. G. Wakeham, and J. I. Hedges (1988) The measurement of oceanic particle flux – Are swimmers a problem? Oceanography, 2: 34-36.

27  Wakeham, S. G. and C. Lee (1989) Organic geochemistry of particulate matter in the ocean: the role of particles in oceanic sedimentary cycles. Org. Geochem. 14: 83-96.

28  Dzurica, S., C. Lee, E. M. Cosper, and E. J. Carpenter (1989) Role of environmental variables, specifically organic compounds and micronutrients, in the growth of the chrysophyte, Aureococcus anophagefferens. In: E. M. Cosper, et al. (eds) Novel Phytoplankton Blooms: Causes and Impacts of Recurrent Brown Tides. pp. 229-252. Springer-Verlag.

29  Cosper, E. M., W. Dennison, A. Milligan, E. J. Carpenter, C. Lee, J. Holzapfel, and L. Milanese (1989) An examination of the environmental factors important to initiating and sustaining “Brown Tide” blooms. In: E. M. Cosper, et al. (eds) Novel Phytoplankton Blooms: Causes and Impacts of Recurrent Brown Tides. pp. 317-340. Springer-Verlag.

30  Cosper, E. M., Lee, C. and E. J. Carpenter (1990)  Novel “brown tide” blooms in Long Island embayments: A search for the causes.  In: E. Granéli, et al. (eds.) Toxic Marine Phytoplankton, pp. 17-28. Elsevier.

31  Anderson, D. M., D. M. Kulis, J. J. Sullivan, S. Hall, and C. Lee (1990) Dynamics and physiology of saxitoxin production by the dinoflagellates Alexandrium spp. Mar. Biol. 104: 511-524.

32  Wang, X.-C. and C. Lee (1990) The distribution and adsorption behavior of aliphatic amines in marine and lacustrine sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 54: 2759-2774.

33  Sun, M., R. C. Aller, and C. Lee (1991) Early diagenesis of chlorophyll-a in Long Island Sound sediments:  A measure of carbon flux and particle reworking. J. Mar. Res. 49: 1-23.

34  McNichol, A. P., E. R. M. Druffel, and C. Lee (1991) Carbon cycling in coastal sediments: 2. An investigation of the sources of ∑CO2 to pore water using carbon isotopes. In: R. A. Baker (ed), Organic Substances and Sediments in Water, Vol. II. Processes and Analytical, pp. 249-272. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI.

35  Hicks, R. E., C. Lee, and A. C. Marinucci (1991) Loss and recycling of amino acids and protein from smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) litter. Estuaries, 14: 430-439.

36  Lee, C., J. I. Hedges, and S. G. Wakeham (1991) Technical problems with the use of sediment traps – preservation, swimmers, and leaching. p. 36-48, In: Sediment Trap Studies in the Nordic Countries 2 (P. Wassmann, A.-S. Heiskanen, & O. Lindahl, Eds) U. Helsinki Press.

37  Lee, C. and S. G. Wakeham (1991) Production, transport and alteration of particulate organic matter in seawater. p. 61-75, In: Sediment Trap Studies in the Nordic Countries 2 (P. Wassmann, A.-S. Heiskanen, & O. Lindahl, Eds.) U. Helsinki Press.

38  Lee, C., S. M. Henrichs, and R. Letelier (1991) Introduction to the Workshop Report: Organic Inventories. In: D. C. Hurd and D. W. Spencer (eds), Marine Particles: Analysis and Characterization, pp. 101-117. AGU Geophysical Monograph 63, Washington, D. C.

39  Repeta, D. J., G. Eglinton, and C. Lee (1992) Marine organic geochemistry: Window to the past. Oceanus 35: 38-46.

40  Lee, C., J. I. Hedges, S. G. Wakeham, and N. Zhu (1992) Effectiveness of poisons and preservatives in retarding bacterial activity in sediment trap material.  Limnol. Oceanogr., 37: 117-130.

41  Lee, C. (1992) Controls on organic carbon preservation: The use of stratified water bodies to compare intrinsic rates of decomposition in oxic and anoxic systems. Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta,  56: 3323-3335.

42  Lee, C. and S. G. Wakeham (1992) Organic matter in the water column: future research challenges. Mar. Chem., 39: 95-118.

43  Sun, M., C. Lee, and R. C. Aller (1993) Laboratory studies of oxic and anoxic degradation of chlorophyll-a in Long Island Sound sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 57: 147-157.

44  Lee, C. and S. M. Henrichs (1993)  How the nature of dissolved organic matter might affect the analysis of dissolved organic carbon. Mar. Chem., 41: 105-120.

45  Yang, X.-H., C. Lee, and M. I. Scranton (1993) Determination of nanomolar amounts of individual dissolved low molecular weight amines and organic acids in seawater. Anal. Chem., 64: 572-576.

46  Pantoja, S., C. Lee, J. F. Marecek, and B. P. Palenik (1993) Synthesis and use of fluorescent molecular probes for measuring cell-surface enzymatic oxidation of amino acids and amines in seawater. Anal. Biochem., 211: 210-218.

47  Wakeham, S. G., J. I. Hedges, C. Lee, and T. Pease (1993) Effect of poisons and preservatives on the composition of organic matter in a sediment trap experiment. J. Mar. Res., 51: 669-696.

48  Hedges, J. I., C. Lee, S. G. Wakeham, P. J. Hernes, and M. L. Peterson (1993) Effect of poisons and preservatives on the fluxes and elemental composition of sediment trap materials. J. Mar. Res., 51: 651-668.

49  Wang, X.-C. and C. Lee (1993) Adsorption and desorption of aliphatic amines, amino acids and acetate by clay minerals and marine sediments. Mar. Chem., 44: 1-23.

50  Jørgensen, N. O. G., N. Kroer, R. B. Coffin, X.-H. Yang, and C. Lee (1993) Dissolved free amino acids, combined amino acids, and DNA as sources of carbon and nitrogen to marine bacteria. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser., 98: 135-148.

51  Sun, M., C. Lee, and R. C. Aller (1993) Anoxic and oxic degradation of 14C-labeled chloropigments and a 14C-labeled diatom in Long Island Sound sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr., 38: 1438-1451.

52  Peterson, M. L., P. J. Hernes, D. S. Thoreson, J. I. Hedges, C. Lee, and S. G. Wakeham (1993) Field evaluation of a valved sediment trap designed to minimize collection of swimming animals.  Limnol. Oceanogr., 38: 1741-1761.

53  Sun, M., R. C. Aller, and C. Lee (1994) Spatial and temporal distributions of sedimentary chloropigments as indicators of benthic processes in Long Island Sound. J. Mar. Res., 52: 149-176.

54  Lee, C. (1994) Controls on carbon preservation – New perspectives.  Chem. Geol., 114:  285-288.

55  Yang, X.-H., M. I. Scranton and C. Lee (1994) Seasonal variations in concentration and microbial uptake of methylamines in estuarine waters. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser., 108: 303-312.

56  de Angelis, M. A. and C. Lee (1994) Methane production during zooplankton grazing on marine phytoplankton. Limnol. Oceanogr., 39: 1298-1308.

57  Wang, X.-C. and C. Lee (1994) Sources and distribution of aliphatic amines in salt marsh sediment. Org. Geochem., 22: 1005-1021.

58  Pantoja, S. and C. Lee (1994) Cell-surface oxidation of amino acids in seawater. Limnol. Oceanogr., 39: 1718-1726.

59  Wang, X.-C. and C. Lee (1995) Decomposition of aliphatic amines and amino acids in anoxic salt marsh sediment. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 59: 1787-1797.

60  Lee, C. and N. O. G. Jørgensen (1995) Seasonal cycling of putrescine and amino acids in relation to biological production in a stratified coastal salt pond.  Biogeochemistry 29: 131-157.

61  Hernes, P. J., J. I. Hedges, M. L. Peterson, S. G. Wakeham and C. Lee (1996) Neutral carbohydrate geochemistry of particulate material in the central equatorial Pacific.  Deep-Sea Res. II 43: 1181-1204.

62  Wang, X.-C., E. R. M. Druffel and C. Lee (1996) Radiocarbon in organic compound classes in particulate organic matter and sediment in the deep Northeast Pacific Ocean. Geophys. Res. Letts., 23: 3583-3586.

63  Sun, M.-Y., S. G. Wakeham and C. Lee (1997) Rates and mechanisms of fatty acid degradation in oxic and anoxic coastal marine sediments of Long Island Sound, New York, USA. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 61: 341-355.

64  Pantoja, S., C. Lee and J. F. Maracek (1997) Hydrolysis of peptides in seawater and sediment. Mar. Chem.  57: 25-40.

65  Ferdelman, T. G., C. Lee, S. Pantoja, J. Harder, B.M. Bebout and H. Fossing (1997) Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in a Thioploca-dominated sediment off the coast of Chile. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 61: 3065-3079.

66  Wakeham, S. G., C. Lee, J. I. Hedges, P.J. Hernes and M. L. Peterson (1997) Molecular indicators of diagenetic status in marine organic matter.  Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 61: 5363-5369.

67  Wakeham, S. G., J. I. Hedges, C. Lee, M. L. Peterson and P. J. Hernes (1997) Compositions and transport of lipid biomarkers through the water column and surficial sediments of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. II, 44: 2131-2162.

68  Gerino, M., R. C. Aller, C. Lee, J. K. Cochran, J. Y. Aller, M. A. Green and D. Hirschberg (1998) Comparison of different tracers and methods used to quantify bioturbation during a spring bloom: 234Thorium, luminophores and chlorophyll-a.  Est. Coast. Shelf Sci., 46: 531-547.

69  Wang, X.-C., E. R. M. Druffel, S. Griffin, C. Lee and M. Kashgarian (1998)  Radiocarbon studies of organic compound classes in plankton and sediment of the northeastern Pacific Ocean.  Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 62: 1365-1378.

70  Sun, M. Y., S. G. Wakeham, R. C. Aller and C. Lee (1998)  Impact of seasonal hypoxia on diagenesis of phytol and its derivatives in Long Island Sound. Mar. Chem., 62: 157-173.

71  Mulholland, M. R., P. M. Glibert, G. M. Berg, L. Van Heukelem, S. Pantoja and C. Lee (1998) Extracellular amino acid oxidation by microplankton: A cross-ecosystem comparison. Aq. Microb. Ecol., 15: 141-152.

72  Lee, C., D.W. Murray, R.T. Barber, K.O. Buesseler, J. Dymond, J.I. Hedges, S. Honjo, S.J. Manganini, J. Marra, C. Moser, M.L. Peterson, W.L. Prell and S.G. Wakeham (1998) Particulate organic carbon fluxes: Compilation of results from the 1995 US JGOFS Arabian Sea Process Study.  Deep-Sea Res. II 45: 2489-2501.

73  Pantoja, S. and C. Lee (1999) Peptide decomposition by extracellular hydrolysis in coastal seawater and salt marsh sediment.  Mar. Chem., 63: 273-291.

74  Pantoja, S. and C. Lee (1999)  Molecular weight distribution of proteinaceous material in Long Island Sound sediments.  Limnol. Oceanogr.,  44: 1323-1330.

75  Sun, M.-Y., R.C. Aller, C. Lee and S.G. Wakeham (1999) Enhanced degradation of algal lipids by benthic macrofaunal activity: effect of Yoldia limatula. J. Mar. Res., 57: 775-804.

76  Mayer, L., E. Druffel, M. Bender, E. Boyle, R. Jahnke, B. Jenkins, C. Lee, G. Luther and B. Moore (1999) Even more interdisciplinary future lies ahead for ocean chemistry. EOS, 80: 207-210.

77  Hedges, J.I., R.G. Keil, C. Lee and S.G. Wakeham (1999) Atmospheric O2 control by a ‘mineral conveyor belt’ linking the continents and ocean.  In: H. Ármannsson (ed.) Geochemistry of the Earth’s Surface. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.

78  Lee, C., S.G. Wakeham and J.I. Hedges (2000) Composition and flux of particulate amino acids and chloropigments in equatorial Pacific seawater and sediments.  Deep-Sea Res. I 47: 1535-1568.

79  Ingalls, A.E., R. C. Aller, C. Lee and M.-Y. Sun (2000) The influence of deposit-feeding  on chlorophyll-a degradation in coastal marine sediments. J. Mar. Res., 58: 631-651.

80  Kuznetsova, M. and C. Lee (2001) Enhanced extracellular enzymatic peptide hydrolysis in the sea surface microlayer. Mar. Chem., 73: 319-332.

81  Hedges, J.I., J.A. Baldock, Y. Gélinas, C. Lee, M. Peterson and S.G. Wakeham (2001) Evidence for non-selective preservation of organic matter in sinking marine particles. Nature 409: 801-804.

82 Hernes, P.J., M.L. Peterson, J.W. Murray, S.G. Wakeham, C. Lee and J.I. Hedges (2001) Particulate carbon and nitrogen fluxes and compositions in the central equatorial Pacific.  Deep-Sea Res. I 48: 1999-2023.

83 Montluçon, D.B. and C. Lee (2001) Factors affecting lysine sorption sorption in a coastal sediment.  Org. Geochem., 32: 933-942.

84 Armstrong R. A., C. Lee, J.I. Hedges, S. Honjo and S.G.Wakeham (2002) A new, mechanistic model for organic carbon fluxes in the ocean based on the quantitative association of POC with ballast minerals. Deep-Sea Res. II 49: 219-236.

85 Hedges, J.I., J.A. Baldock, Y. Gélinas, C. Lee, M. Peterson and S.G. Wakeham (2002) The biochemical and elemental compositions of marine plankton: A NMR perspective. Mar. Chem., 78:47-63.

86 Wakeham, S.G., M.L. Peterson, J.I. Hedges and C. Lee (2002) Lipid biomarker fluxes in the Arabian Sea, with a comparison to the equatorial Pacific Ocean.  Deep-Sea Res. II 49:2265-2301.

87 Sun, M.Y. R.C. Aller, C. Lee and S.G. Wakeham (2002) Effects of oxygen and redox oscillation on degradation of cell-associated lipids in surficial marine sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66: 2003-2012.

88 Mulholland, M.R., C. J. Gobler and C. Lee.  (2002 ) Peptide hydrolysis, amino acid oxidation and nitrogen uptake in communities seasonally dominated by Aureococcus anophagefferens. Limnol. Oceanogr., 47: 1094–1108.

89 Green, M.A., R.C. Aller, J.K. Cochran, C. Lee and J.Y. Aller (2002) Bioturbation in shelf/slope sediments off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina: the use of 234Th, Chl-a, and Br to evaluate rates of particle and solute transport. Deep-Sea Res. II 49: 4627-4644.

90 Kuznetsova, M. and C. Lee (2002) Dissolved free and combined amino acids in nearshore seawater, sea surface microlayers and foams: Influence of extracellular hydrolysis. Aq. Sci. 64: 1-17.

91 Sheridan C.C., C. Lee, S.G. Wakeham, and J.K.B. Bishop (2002) Suspended particle organic composition and cycling in surface and midwaters of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. I 49: 1983-2008.

92 Ingalls, A.E., C. Lee, S.G. Wakeham and J.I. Hedges (2003) The role of biominerals in the sinking flux and preservation of amino acids in the Southern Ocean along 170oW. Deep-Sea Res. II 50: 709-734.

93 Ingalls, A.E., C. Lee and E.R.M. Druffel (2003) Preservation of organic matter in mound-forming coral skeletons. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67: 2827-2841.

94 Pantoja, S. and C. Lee (2003) Amino acid remineralization and organic matter lability in Chilean coastal sediments. Org. Geochem., 34: 1047-1056.

95 Mulholland, M.R., C. Lee and P.M. Glibert (2003) Extracellular enzyme activity and uptake of carbon and nitrogen along an estuarine salinity and nutrient gradient. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 258: 3-17.

96 Minor, E.C., S.G. Wakeham and C. Lee (2003) Changes in the molecular-level characteristics of sinking marine particles with water column depth. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67: 4277-4288.

97 Kuznetsova, M., C. Lee, J. Aller and N. Frew (2004) Enrichment of amino acids in the sea surface microlayer along a coastal to open ocean productivity transect in the North Atlantic Ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr., 49: 1605-1619.

98  Ingalls, A.I., R.C. Aller, C. Lee and S.G. Wakeham (2004) Organic matter diagenesis in shallow water carbonate sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 68: 4363-4379.

99  Lee, C., S.G. Wakeham and C. Arnosti. (2004) Particulate organic matter in the sea: The composition conundrum.  Ambio  33: 565-575.

100  Brandes, J.A., Wirick, S., Lee, C., Wakeham, S.G., Peterson, M.L. and Cody, G. (2004)  Examining marine particulate organic matter at sub-micron scales using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) and carbon near edge x-ray adsorption fine structure (C-NEXAFS) spectroscopy. Mar. Chem., 92: 107-121.

101  McCarthy, M., Benner, R., Lee, C., Hedges, J. and Fogel, M. (2004)  Amino acid carbon isotopic fractionation patterns in oceanic dissolved organic matter: evidence for predominant photoautotrophic source? Mar. Chem., 92: 123-134.

102  Lee, C.  (2004) Transformations in the “twilight zone” and beyond. Mar. Chem., 92: 87-90.

103  Liu, Z., Stewart, G., Cochran, J.K., Lee, C., Armstrong, R.A., Hirschberg, D., Gasser, B. and Miquel, J-C. (2005) Why do POC concentrations measured using Niskin bottle collections sometimes differ from those using in-situ pumps? Deep-Sea Res. I, 52: 1324-1344.

104  Kuznetsova, M., C. Lee, and J. Aller (2005) Characterization of the proteinaceous matter in marine aerosols. Mar. Chem. 96: 359-377.

105  Peterson, M.L. Wakeham, S.G., Lee, C., Askea, M.A. and Miquel, J.C.  (2005) Novel techniques for collection of sinking particles in the ocean and determining their settling rates. Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods, 3: 520-532.

106 Liu, Z. and C. Lee. (2006) Drying effects on sorption capacity of coastal sediment: The importance of architecture and polarity of organic matter. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 70: 3313-3324.

107 Plavšic, M. Cosovic, B., and C. Lee (2006) Copper complexing properties of melanoidins and marine humic material. Sci. Tot. Environ. 366: 310-319.

108  Ingalls, A.E., Z. Liu  and C. Lee (2006) Seasonal trends in the pigment and amino acid compositions of sinking particles in biogenic CaCO3 and SiO2 dominated regions of the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean along 170°W. Deep-Sea Res. I. 53: 836-859.

109  Liu, Z., C. Lee and S.G. Wakeham. (2006) Effects of mercuric chloride and protease inhibitors on degradation of particulate organic matter from the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Org. Geochem. 37: 1003-1018.

110  Stewart, G., J.K. Cochran, J. Xue, C. Lee, S.G. Wakeham, R.A. Armstrong, P. Masqué, and J.C. Miquel (2007) Exploring the connection betwen 210Po and organic matter in the northwestern Mediterranean. Deep-Sea Res. I 54: 415-427.

111  Liu, Z. and Lee, C. (2007) The role of organic matter in the sorption capacity of marine sediments. Mar. Chem., 105: 240-257

112  Goutx, M., S.G. Wakeham, C. Lee, M. Duflos, C. Guigue, Z. Liu, B. Moriceau, R. Sempere, M. Tedetti, and J. Xue. (2007) Composition and degradation of marine particles with different settling velocities in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Limnol. Oceanogr. 52: 1645-1664.

113  McCarthy, M.D., Benner, R., Lee, C., and Fogel, M.L. (2007) Amino acid nitrogen isotopic fractionation patterns as indicators of heterotrophy in plankton, particulate, and dissolved organic matter. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 71: 4727-4744.

114 Hofmann, E.E, J.-N. Druon, K. Fennel, M. Friedrichs, D. Haidvogel, C. Lee, A. Manino, C. McClain, R. Najjar, J. Siewart, J. O’Reilly, D. Pollard, S. Seitzinger, S. Signorini, and J. Wilkin (2008) Eastern U.S. continental shelf carbon budget: Integrating models, data assimilation, and analysis. Oceanography, 21: 86-104.

115 Fabres, J., Tesi, T., Velez, J., Batista, F., Lee, C., Calafat, A., Heussner, S., Palanques, A., Miserocchi, S. (2008) Seasonal and event-controlled export of organic matter from the shelf towards the Gulf of Lions continental slope. Cont. Shelf Res. 28: 1971-1983.

116  Liu, Z., Lee, C., Aller, R.C. (2008) Drying effects on decomposition of salt marsh sediment and on lysine sorption. J. Mar. Res. 66: 665-689.

117  Lee, C., R.A. Armstrong, J.K. Cochran, A. Engel, S.W. Fowler, M. Goutx, P. Masqué, J.C. Miquel, M. Peterson C. Tamburini, and S. Wakeham. 2009. MedFlux: Investigations of particle flux in the Twilight Zone. Deep-Sea Res. II, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.12.003

118  Abramson, L., Wirick, S., Lee, C., Jacobsen, C., and Brandes, J.A. 2009. The use of soft X-ray spectromicroscopy to investigate the distribution and composition of organic matter in a diatom frustule and a biomimetic analog. Deep-Sea Res. II, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.11.031

119  Moriceau, B., Goutx, M., Guigue, C., Lee, C., Armstrong, R.A., Duflos, M., Tamburini, C., Charrière, B. and Ragueneau, O. 2009. Si-C interactions during degradation of the diatom Skeletonema marinoi. Deep-Sea Res. II, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.11.026

120  Engel. A., Szlosek, J., Abramson, L., Liu, Z., and Lee, C. 2009. Investigating the effect of ballasting by CaCO3 in Emiliania huxleyi: I. Formation, settling velocities and physical properties of aggregates. Deep-Sea Res. II, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.11.027

121  Engel, A., Abramson, L., Szlosek, J., Liu, Z., Stewart, G., Hirschberg, D., and Lee, C. 2009. Investigating the effect of ballasting by CaCO3 in Emiliania huxleyi: II. Decomposition of particulate organic matter. Deep-Sea Res. II, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.11.028

122 Lee, C., Peterson, M.L, Wakeham, S.G., Armstrong, R.A., Cochran, J.K., Miquel, J.C., Fowler, S.W., Hirschberg, D., Beck, A., and Xue, J. 2009. Particulate organic matter and ballast fluxes measured using time-series and settling velocity sediment traps in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Deep-Sea Res. II,1420-1436.  doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.11.029

123  Wakeham, S.G., Lee, C., Peterson, M.L., Liu, Z., Szlosek, J., Putnam, I., and Xue, J. 2009. Organic biomarkers in the twilight zone – Time series and settling velocity sediment traps during MEDFLUX. Deep-Sea Res. II, 56: 1437-1453, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.11.030

124  Armstrong, R.A., Peterson, M.L., Lee, C., and Wakeham, S.G. 2009. Settling velocity spectra and the ballast ratio hypothesis. Deep-Sea Res. II, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.11.032

125  Tamburini, C., Goutx, M., Guigue, C., Garel, M., Lefèvre, D., Charrière, B., Sempéré, R., Pepa, S., Peterson, M.L., Wakeham, S.G., and Lee, C. 2009. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on microbial alteration of sinking fecal pellets. Deep-Sea Res. II, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.12.035

126  Peterson, M.L., Fabres, J., Wakeham, S.G., Lee, C., Alonso, I.J., and Miquel, J.C. 2009. Sampling the vertical particle flux in the upper water column using a large diameter free-drifting NetTrap adapted to an Indented Rotating Sphere sediment trap. Deep-Sea Res. II, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.12.020

127  Liu, Z., Cochran, J.K., Lee, C., Gasser, B., Miquel, J.C., and Wakeham, S.G. 2009. Further investigations on why POC concentrations differ in samples collected by Niskin bottle and in situ pump. Deep-Sea Res. II, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.12.019

128  Liu, Z. Mao, J., Peterson, M.L., Lee, C., Wakeham, S.G., and Hatcher P.G. 2009. Characterization of sinking particles from the northwest Mediterranean Sea using advanced solid-state NMR. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 73: 1014-1026.

129  Mulholland, M.R. and C. Lee. 2009. Peptide hydrolysis and the uptake of dipeptides by phytoplankton. Limnol. Oceanogr., 54: 2009, 856–868.

130  Birdsey, R., N. Bates, M. Behrenfeld, K. Davis, S. Doney, R. Feely, D. Hansell, L. Heath, E. Kasischke, H. Kheshgi, B. Law, C. Lee, A.D. McGuire, P. Raymond, C.J. Tucker. 2009. Carbon cycle observations: Gaps threaten climate mitigation policies. EOS 90(34): 292-293.

131  Alonso-González, I.J., J. Arístegui, C. Lee, and A. Calafat. 2010. Regional and temporal variability of sinking organic matter in the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean: a biomarker diagnosis. Biogeosciences 7: 2101-2115.

132 Cosovic, B. Vojvodic, V., Boškovic, N., Plavšic, M. and Lee, C. 2010. Characterization of natural and synthetic humic substances (melanoidins) by chemical composition and adsorption measurements. Org. Geochem. 41: 200-205.

133  Abramson, L., C. Lee, Z. Liu, J. Szlosek and S. Wakeham. 2010. Exchange between suspended and sinking particles in the northwest Mediterranean as inferred from the organic composition of in situ pump and sediment trap samples. Limnol. Oceanogr. 55: 725-739.

134  Liu, Z., M. Kobiela, G. McKee, T. Tang, C. Lee, M. Mulholland, and P. Hatcher. 2010.  The effect of chemical structure on the hydrolysis of tetrapeptides in seawater: AVFA and SWGA. Mar. Chem. 119: 108-120.

135  Alonso-González, I.J.,  J. Arístegui, C. Lee, A. Sanchez-Vidal, A. Calafat, J. Fabrés, P. Sangrá, P. Masqué, A. Hernandez-Guerra, and V. Benitez-Barrios. 2010. Role of slowly settling particles in the ocean carbon cycle. Geophys. Res. Letts. Vol. 37, L13608, doi:10.1029/2010GL043827.

136 Hofmann, E.E., B. Cahill, K. Fennel, M.A.M. Friedrichs, K. Hyde, C. Lee, A. Mannino, R.G. Najjar, J. J. O’Reilly, J. Wilkin, and J. Xue. 2011. Modeling the dynamics of continental shelf carbon. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 3: 93–122.

137 Xue, J., C. Lee, S. Wakeham and R.A. Armstrong. 2011. Using principal components analysis (PCA) with cluster analysis to study the organic geochemistry of sinking particles in the ocean. Org. Geochem. 42: 356-367.

138 Pasqual, C., C. Lee, M. Goñi, T. Tesi, A. Sanchez-Vidal, A. Calafat, M. Canals,and S. Heussner. 2011.  Use of organic biomarkers to trace the transport of marine and terrigenous organic matter through the southwestern canyons of the Gulf of Lion. Mar. Chem. 126: 1-12.

139 Alonso-González, I., J. Arístegui, C. Lee, A. Sanchez-Vidal, A. Calafat, J. Fabrés, P. Sangrá, and E. Mason. 2013. Carbon dynamics within cyclonic eddies: Insights from a biomarker study. PLoS ONE, 8(12): e82447. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082447.
140 Tang, T., C. Lee, and K. Kisslinger. 2014. Silicate deposition on decomposing cyanobacteria as a source of particulate silicate in the ocean. Nature Comm, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5143.

141 Engel, A., C. Cisternas Novoa, M. Wurst, S. Endres, T. Tang, M. Schartau and C. Lee. 2014. No detectable effect of CO2 on elemental stoichiometry of Emiliania huxleyi in nutrient-limited, acclimated continuous cultures. MEPS, 507: 15-30.

142 Cisternas Novoa, C., C. Lee, A. Engel.  2014. A semi-quantitative spectrophotometric, dye-binding assay for determination of Coomassie Blue stainable particles. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods. 12: 604-616.

143 Cisternas Novoa, C., C. Lee, A. Engel.  2015. Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and Coomassie stainable particles (CSP): Differences between their origin and vertical distributions in the ocean. Mar. Chem. 175: 56-71,

144 Chow, J.S., C. Lee, A. Engel. 2015. The influence of extracellular polysaccharides, growth rate, and free coccoliths on the coagulation efficiency of Emiliania huxleyi. Mar. Chem. 175: 5-17,

145 Tang, T., C. Lee. 2016. The role of surface layer glycoproteins in the degradation of a photosynthetic prokaryote, the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Mar. Chem. 186: 33-45. /10.1016/j.marchem.2016.07.003.

146 Wang, W., C. Lee, J.K. Cochran, F.W. Primeau, and R.A. Armstrong. 2017. A novel statistical analysis of chloropigment fluxes to constrain particle exchange and organic matter remineralization rate constants in the Mediterranean Sea. Mar. Chem. 192: 49-58,  doi: 10.1016/j.marchem.2017.03.011.

147 Tang, T., K.C. Filippino, Z. Liu, M.R. Mulholland, and C. Lee.  2017. Peptide hydrolysis and uptake of peptide hydrolysis products in the James River Estuary and lower Chesapeake Bay. Mar. Chem. 197: 52-63,

148 Cisternas Novoa, C., C. Lee, T. Tang, R. de Jesus, A. Engel.  Effects of higher CO2 and temperature on gel particle content and physical properties of marine particle aggregates. Frontiers, Submitted.

149 Wang, W., C. Lee, F.W. Primeau. 2018. Inferring particle dynamics in the Mediterranean Sea from in-situ pump POC and chloropigment data using Bayesian statistics. Biogeochem. Discuss. 2018: 1–19.

150 Lee, C. 2019. Passing the baton to the next generation: A few problems that need solving. Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci. 11:X–X


Book Chapters:

1   Lonsdale, P.F. and C. Lee (1973) Waters of the earth. In: Physical Science Today, Communications-Research-Machines (CRM) Books. Del Mar, CA, Chapter 16, pp. 193-309. [ISBN 0-394-30281-8]

2  Gagosian, R. B. and C. Lee (1981) Processes controlling the distribution of  biogenic organic compounds in seawater.  In: E. K. Duursma and R. Dawson (eds) Marine Organic Chemistry, pp. 91-123. Elsevier.

3  Lee, C. (1988) Amino acid and amine biogeochemistry in marine particulate material and sediments.  In: T. H. Blackburn and J. Sørenson (eds), Nitrogen Cycling in Coastal Marine Environments, pp. 125-141. SCOPE Series 33, Wiley & Sons.

4  Lee, C. and S. G. Wakeham (1988) Organic matter in seawater: Biogeochemical processes.  In: J. P. Riley (ed), Chemical Oceanography, Vol. 9, pp. 1-51. Academic Press.

5  Wakeham, S. G. and C. Lee (1993) Production, transport, and alteration of particulate organic matter in the marine water column. In: M.H. Engel and S. A. Macko (eds) Organic Geochemistry, pp. 145-169. Plenum Press.

6  Benner, R., Von Bodungen, B., Farrington, J., Hedges, J., Lee, C., Mantoura, F., Suzuki, Y., Williams, P.M. 1993. Measurement of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in natural waters: Workshop report. Mar. Chem., 41: 5-10.

7  Davidson, E., et al. (1995) What are the physical, chemical, and biological processes that control the formation and degradation of nonliving organic matter?  pp. 305-324, In: The Role of Nonliving Organic Matter in the Earth’s Carbon Cycle. R. G. Zepp and Ch. Sonntag (Eds.), Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

8  Wakeham, S. G., C. Lee and J. I. Hedges (2000) Fluxes of major biochemicals in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. In: N. Handa, E. Tanoue, and T. Hama (ed), Dynamics and Characterization of Marine Organic Matter, TERRAPUB/Kluwer, Tokyo/Dordrecht, pp. 117-140.

9  Lee, C. (2002) Particulate organic matter composition and fluxes in the sea. Chapter 5, In: A. Gianguzza (ed) Marine Biogeochemistry, pp. 125-146. Springer.

10  Engel, A., J. Barcelos e Ramos, R. Geider, D.A. Hutchins, C. Lee, B. Rost, R. Röttgers and F. Thingstad (2010) Production and export of organic matter, Chapter 11, In: Guide to best practices for ocean acidification research and data reporting.  Eds. U. Riebesell, V.J. Fabry, L. Hansson and J.-P. Gattuso, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.


Edited Volumes:

1  Hedges, J.I. and C. Lee (1993) Measurement of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in natural waters.  Marine Chemistry 41: 1-290.

2  Lee, C. (1994)  Controls on carbon preservation.  Chem. Geol. 114:  283-379.

3  Committee on Reference Materials for Ocean Science (Dickson, A., Bidigare, R., Hedges, J., Johnson, K., Leblanc, D., Lee, C., McNichol, A., Millero, F., Moffett, J., Moore, W., Peltzer, E., van den Berg, S.)  (2002) Chemical Reference Materials: Setting the Standards for Ocean Science, Ocean Studies Board, National Research Council, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 130 pp.

4  Benner, R., Lee, C. and Wakeham, S.G. (2004) Symposium on new approaches in marine organic biogeochemistry: a tribute to the life of John I. Hedges.  Mar. Chem. 92: 1-374.

5 Wang, D., Chen, N., Liu, H., and Lee, C. (2015)  River-estuary-coast continuum: Biogeochemistry and ecological response to increasing human and climatic changes. Est. Coast. Shelf Sci. 166B: 143-239.


Book Reviews and Unreviewed Articles:

Lee, C., J. W. Farrington, R. B. Gagosian, and S. G. Wakeham (1984) Summary paper on production, transformation and transfer of organic compounds in the sea, pp. 251-259. Global Ocean Flux Study, Proceedings of a Workshop, National Academy Press.

Lee, C. (1985) Book review: Heterotrophic activity in the sea (J. E. Hobbie and P. J. LeB. Williams, Eds) Biogeochemistry 1: 383.

Lee, C. (1987) Book review: Biogeochemical Processes at the Land-Sea Boundary (P. Lasserre and J. Martin, Eds) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 51: 3280.

Lee, C. (1988) Book review: The Marine Environment of the U.S. Atlantic Continental Slope and Rise (J. D. Milliman and R. Wright, Eds) Sedimentology, 35: 537-538.

Lee, C. (1993) Book review: Early Organic Evolution: Implications for Mineral and Energy Resources (M. Schidlowski et al., Eds) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 57: 2665-2666.

Hedges, J., Lee, C., and Wangersky, P. 1993. Comments from the Editors on the Suzuki statement. Mar. Chem., 4l: 289-290.

Lee, C. (1994) Kitty litter for carbon control. Nature (News & Views) 370: 503-504.

Lee, C. (2008) Book Review: Chasing science at sea: Racing hurricanes, stalking sharks, and living undersea with ocean experts. (E. Prager) EOS 89: 517.

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