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Minghua Zhang

mzhang2Distinguished Professor
Editor-in-Chief, JGR-Atmospheres
Ph.D., 1987, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Academia Sinica

Climate modelling, atmospheric dynamics

Google Scholar Profile

Research Interests

My research concerns numerical modeling of climate and global climate change. This includes development and analysis of parameterization components in general circulation models, diagnostic study of physical processes and feedback processes in the climate system, modeling and analysis of past and future climate changes, by using models and satellite measurements as well as other observations.

My main focus on parameterization development is about moist processes related to clouds, radiation, convections, boundary layer physics and their interactions, with the goal of improving global models to more accurately predict climate change on a wide range of time scales. For this purpose, I am involved in several field experiments that collect comprehensive upper air and surface data within an atmospheric column. I work on analyzing these field experimental data and interface them with physical parameterizations in atmospheric models.

I am also interested in the study of the dynamics of large-scale atmospheric waves. We study the excitation, propagation, dissipation of atmospheric waves and their influences on the variability of atmospheric circulation. A better knowledge of the behavior of these waves will improve our understanding of the weather and short-term climate variations.



Xie, Jingbo,  Minghua Zhang, and Hailong Liu (2019):  Role of Arctic Sea Ice in the 2014–2015 Eurasian Warm Winter, JGR-Atmospheres,

Zhu, J, Zhang, M, Zeng, X.(2019): Linkage between tropical terrestrial carbon cycle and precipitation: The two anomalous years of 1979 and 1996. Atmos Sci Lett. 2019; 20:e876.

Xie, S., Wang, Y.‐C., Lin, W., Ma, H.‐Y., Tang, Q., Tang, S., et al. Zhang, M ( 2019). Improved diurnal cycle of precipitation in E3SM with a revised convective triggering function. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 11, 2290– 2310.

Zheng, C., E. Kar-Man Chang, H. Kim, M. Zhang, and W. Wang, 2018: Impacts of the Madden–Julian Oscillation on Storm-Track Activity, Surface Air Temperature, and Precipitation over North America. J. Climate, 31, 6113–6134,

Zheng, X., Golaz, J.‐C., Xie, S., Tang, Q., Lin, W., Zhang, M., et al. ( 2019). The summertime precipitation bias in E3SM Atmosphere Model version 1 over the Central United States. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124, 8935– 8952.

Tao, C., Zhang, Y., Tang, S., Tang, Q., Ma, H.‐Y., Xie, S., & Zhang, M. ( 2019). Regional moisture budget and land‐atmosphere coupling over the U.S. Southern Great Plains inferred from the ARM long‐term observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124, 10091– 10108.

Tang, S., Xie, S., Zhang, M., Tang, Q., Zhang, Y., Klein, S. A., et al. ( 2019). Differences in eddy‐correlation and energy‐balance surface turbulent heat flux measurements and their impacts on the large‐scale forcing fields at the ARM SGP site. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124, 3301– 3318.

He, B., Bao, Q., Wang, X. et al and Zhang, M et al.  (2019): CAS FGOALS-f3-L Model Datasets for CMIP6 Historical Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project Simulation,  Adv. Atmos. Sci. 36: 771.

Yu, H. Y., and M. H. Zhang, 2018: Explaining the year-to-year variability of the eastern Pacific intertropical convergence zone in the boreal spring. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos.

Zhang, T., M., Zhang, Lin, W., Lin, Y., Xue, W., Yu, H., He, J., Xin, X., Ma, H.-Y., Xie, S., and Zheng, W.: Automatic tuning of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM5) by using short-term hindcasts with an improved downhill simplex optimization method, Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 5189-5201,, 2018.

Zhu, J. and M. Zhang et al. 2018: Response of Tropical Terrestrial Gross Primary Production to the Super El Niño Event in 2015.  J. Geophys. Res.  – Biogeosciences

Zhang, M., A. Mariotti, Z. Lin, V. Ramasmamy, J. Lamarque, Z. Xie, and J. Zhu, 2018: Coordination to Understand and Reduce Global Model Biases by U.S. and Chinese Institutions. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 99, ES109–ES113,

Smirnov, O., Steinwand, M.C., Xiao, T. , M. Zhang, 2018: Climate Impacts, Political Institutions, and Leader Survival: Effects of Droughts and Flooding Precipitation,  EconDisCliCha. Economics of Disasters and Climate Change

Chen, J., Y., Liu, M, Zhang, & Peng, Y. (2018). Height dependency of aerosol-cloud interaction regimes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123.


Lin, Y., Dong, W., Zhang, M., Xie, Y., Xue, W., Huang, J., & Luo, Y. (2017). Causes of model dry and warm bias over central US and impact on climate projections. Nature Communications, 8.

Tang, S., Zhang, M., & Xie, S. (2017). Investigating the Dependence of SCM Simulated Precipitation and Clouds on the Spatial Scale of Large‐Scale Forcing at SGP. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.

Li, Y., & Zhang, M. (2017). The Role of Shallow Convection over the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Climate, 30(15), 5791-5803.

Xie, J., & Zhang, M. (2017). Role of internal atmospheric variability in the 2015 extreme winter climate over the North American continent. Geophysical Research Letters.

Jin, J., Zeng, Q., Wu, L., Liu, H., & Zhang, M. (2017). Formulation of a new ocean salinity boundary condition and impact on the simulated climate of an oceanic general circulation model. Science China Earth Sciences, 60(3), 491-500.

Liu, Ping and Zhu, Yuejian and Zhang, Qin and Gottschalck, Jon and Zhang, Minghua et al. (2017) , Climatology of tracked persistent maxima of 500-hPa geopotential height. Climate Dynamics,

Zhang, M., S. Xie and RCJ Somerville (2017), The SCM Concept and Creation of ARM Forcing Datasets, Meteorological Monographs 57, 24.1-24.12, American Meteorological Societ,


Li, Y., & Zhang, M. (2016). Cumulus over the Tibetan Plateau in the Summer Based on CloudSat-CALIPSO Data. Journal of Climate, 29 (3):1219-1230; 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0492.1 FEB 2016.

Liu, P., Zhang, Q., Zhang, C., Zhu, Y., Khairoutdinov, M., Kim, H. M., … & Zhang, M. (2016). A Revised Real-Time Multivariate MJO Index. Monthly Weather Review, 144 (2):627-642; 10.1175/MWR-D-15-0237.1 FEB 2016

Smirnov, O., Zhang, M., Xiao, T. et al. 2016: The relative importance of climate change and population growth for exposure to future extreme droughts. Climatic Change (2016) 138: 41. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1716-z

Tang, S., Xie, S., Zhang, Y., Zhang, M., Schumacher, C., Upton, H., … & Feng, Z. (2016). Large-scale vertical velocity, diabatic heating and drying profiles associated with seasonal and diurnal variations of convective systems observed in the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16(22), 14249-14264.

Tang, S., M. Zhang, and S. Xie (2016), An ensemble constrained variational analysis of atmospheric forcing data and its application to evaluate clouds in CAM5, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 33–48, doi:10.1002/2015JD024167.

Wu, C., Lin, Z., He, J., Zhang, M., Liu, X., Zhang, R., & Brown, H. (2016). A process‐oriented evaluation of dust emission parameterizations in CESM: Simulation of a typical severe dust storm in East Asia. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 8(3), 1432-1452.

Yu, H., Zhang, M., Lin, W. and Zhang, X. (2016), Cloud transitions: comparison of temporal variation in the southeastern Pacific with the spatial variation in the northeastern Pacific at low latitudes. Int. J. Climatol.. doi:10.1002/joc.4889

Smirnov, O., Zhang, M., Xiao, T. et al. 2016: The relative importance of climate change and population growth for exposure to future extreme droughts. Climatic Change (2016) 138: 41. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1716-z

Chen, J., Y. Liu, M. Zhang, and Y. Peng (2016), New understanding and quantification of the regime dependence of aerosol-cloud interaction for studying aerosol indirect effects, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 1780–1787, doi:10.1002/2016GL067683.

Yunying Li and Minghua Zhang, 2016: Cumulus over the Tibetan Plateau in the Summer Based on CloudSat–CALIPSO Data. J. Climate, 29, 1219–1230. doi:

Ping Liu, Qin Zhang, Chidong Zhang, Yuejian Zhu, Marat Khairoutdinov, Hye-Mi Kim, Courtney Schumacher, and Minghua Zhang, 2016: A Revised Real-Time Multivariate MJO Index. Mon. Wea. Rev., 144, 627–642. doi:


Zhang, X., H. Liu, and M. Zhang (2015), Double ITCZ in Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Models: From CMIP3 to CMIP5, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 8651–8659, doi:10.1002/2015GL065973.

Xie, X., and M. Zhang (2015), Scale-aware parameterization of liquid cloud inhomogeneity and its impact on simulated climate in CESM, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 8359–8371, doi:10.1002/2015JD023565.

Hye-Mi Kim, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Minghua Zhang, 2015: Statistical–Dynamical Seasonal Forecast for Tropical Cyclones Affecting New York State. Wea. Forecasting30, 295–307. doi:

Tang, S., M. Zhang, and S. Xie (2015), An ensemble constrained variational analysis of atmospheric forcing data and its application to evaluate clouds in CAM5, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, doi:10.1002/2015JD024167.

Wang, X., and M. Zhang (2015), The coupling of mixed Rossby-gravity waves with diabatic heating during the TRMM-KWAJEX field campaign, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 8241–8249, doi:10.1002/2015GL065813.

Tang, S., and M. Zhang (2015), Three-dimensional constrained variational analysis: Approach and application to analysis of atmospheric diabatic heating and derivative fields during an ARM SGP intensive observational period, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, doi:10.1002/2015JD023621.

Vogelmann, A.M., A.M. Fridlind, T. Toto, S. Endo, W. Lin, J. Wang, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, D.D Turner, Y. Liu, Z. Li, S. Xie, A.S. Ackerman, M. Zhang, and M. Khairoutdinov, 2015: RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. Part I: Case study development and ensemble large-scale forcings. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos.120, no. 12, 5962-5992, doi:10.1002/2014JD022713.

Zhou, L., M. Zhang, Q. Bao, and Y. Liu (2015), On the incident solar radiation in CMIP5 models. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 1930–1935. doi: 10.1002/2015GL063239.

Lin, Yanluan Lin, Ming Zhao and Minghua Zhang, 2015:  Tropical cyclone rainfall area controlled by relative sea surface temperature, Nature Communications 6, 6591m doi:10.1038/ncomms7591

Ridley, H.E., Y. Asmerom, J.U.L. Baldini, S.F.M. Breitenbach, V.V. Aquino, K.M. Prufer, Brendan J. Culleton, V. Polyak, F.A. Lechleitner, D.J. Kennett, M. Zhang, N. Marwan, C.G. Macpherson, L.M. Baldini, T. Xiao, J.L. Peterkin, J. Awe, G.H. Haug, 2015: Aerosol forcing of the position of the intertropical convergence zone since AD 1550. Nat. Geosci., 8 (2015)

Zhang, M., 2015. Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Models: Physical Processes. P144-152, In: Gerald R.North (editor-in-chief), John Pyle and Fuqing Zhang (editors). Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, 2nd edition, Vol 4, pp. 144–152. ISBN: 9780123822253, 2998pp, Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Lin, W., Y. Liu, A. M. Vogelmann, A. Fridlind, S. Endo, H. Song, S. Feng, T. Toto, Z. Li, and M. Zhang (2015), RACORO Continental Boundary Layer Cloud Investigations. Part III: Separation of Parameterization Biases in Single-Column Model CAM5 Simulations of Shallow Cumulus, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, doi:10.1002/2014JD022524.

Li, Z., S. Feng, Y. Liu, W. Lin, M. Zhang, T. Toto, A. M. Vogelmann, and S. Endo (2015), Development of fine-resolution analyses and expanded large-scale forcing properties: 1. Methodology and evaluation, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 654–666, doi:10.1002/2014JD022245.

Feng, S., Z. Li, Y. Liu, W. Lin, M. Zhang, T. Toto, A. M. Vogelmann, and S. Endo (2015), Development of fine-resolution analyses and expanded large-scale forcing properties: 2. Scale awareness and application to single-column model experiments, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 667–677, doi:10.1002/2014JD022254.


Wei, N., Y. Dai, M. Zhang, L. Zhou, D. Ji, S. Zhu, and L. Wang (2014), Impact of precipitation‐induced sensible heat on the simulation of land‐surface air temperature, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 06, doi:10.1002/2014MS000322.

Xie, S., Y. Zhang, S. E. Giangrande, M. P. Jensen, R. McCoy, and M. Zhang (2014), Interactions between cumulus convection and its environment as revealed by the MC3E sounding array, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, doi:10.1002/2014JD022011.

Zhijin Li, Sha Feng, Yangang Liu, Wuyin Lin, Minghua Zhang, Tami Toto, Andrew M. Vogelmann and Satoshi Endo, 2014: Development of Fine-Resolution Analyses and Expanded Large-Scale Forcing Properties. Part I: Methodology and Evaluation, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119,  DOI: 10.1002/2014JD022245

Wang, X., and M. Zhang (2014), Vertical velocity in shallow convection for different plume types, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 06, doi:10.1002/2014MS000318.

Xin, Xiao-Ge, Xue Wei, Zhang Ming-Hua, Li Hui-Min, Zhang Tao, and Zhang Jie.  Simulation of SST variability in the North Pacific Ocean and ENSO by an interactive ensemble coupled model.  CHINESE JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICS-CHINESE EDITION 57, no. 4 (2014): 1021-1031.

Zhang, J., Xue, W., Zhang, M., Li, H., Zhang, T., Li, L. and Xin, X. (2014), Climate impacts of stochastic atmospheric perturbations on the ocean. Int. J. Climatol.. doi: 10.1002/joc.3949

Xiaoge Xin, Wei Xue, Minghua Zhang, Huimin Li, Tao Zhang, Jie Zhang, 2014: How much of the NAO monthly variability is from ocean–atmospheric coupling: results from an interactive ensemble climate model. Climate Dynamics, 10.1007/s00382-014-2246-x


Zhang, Minghua. and 39 co-authors 2013: CGILS: Results from the First Phase of an International Project to Understand the Physical Mechanisms of Low Cloud Feedbacks in General Circulation ModelsJournal of  Advances in Modeling Earth Systems., DOI: 10.1002/2013MS000246

Jun Yang, Peng Gong, Rong Fu, Minghua Zhang, Jingming Chen, Shunlin Liang, Bing Xu, Jiancheng Shi and Robert Dickinson, 2013:The role of satellite remote sensing in climate change studies, Nature Climate Change 3 1001 PubDate: 2013-10-29|2013-10-29, DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2033

Wang, Xiaocong and Minghua Zhang, 2013: An analysis of parameterization interactions and sensitivity of single-column model simulations to convection schemes in CAM4 and CAM5. J. Geophys. Res., DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50690.

He, J., M. Zhang, W. Lin, B. Colle, P. Liu, and A. M. Vogelmann (2013), The WRF nested within the CESM: Simulations of a midlatitude cyclone over the Southern Great Plains, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 5, doi:10.1002/JAME.20042.

Neale, Richard B., Jadwiga Richter, Sungsu Park, Peter H. Lauritzen, Stephen J. Vavrus, Philip J. Rasch, Minghua Zhang, 2013: The Mean Climate of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) in Forced SST and Fully Coupled Experiments. J. Climate, 26, 5150–5168. doi:

Zhang, Yi,  Rucong Yu, Jian Li, Weihua Yuan, Minghua Zhang, 2013: Dynamic and thermodynamic relations of distinctive stratus clouds on the lee side of the Tibetan Plateau in the cold season Journal of Climate. doi:

Colle, Brain A.,  Zhenhai Zhang, Kelly A. Lombardo, Edmund Chang, Ping Liu, Minghua Zhang 2013: Historical evaluation and future prediction of eastern North America and western Atlantic extratropical cyclones in the CMIP5 models during the cool season. J. Climate, doi:

Zhang, He,  Minghua Zhang, Qing-cun Zeng, 2013: Sensitivity of Simulated Climate to Two Atmospheric models: Interpretation of Differences between Dry Models and Moist Models. Monthly Weather Review, doi:

  1. N. Blossey, C. S. Bretherton, M. Zhang, A. Cheng, S. Endo, T. Heus, Y. Liu, A. Lock, S. R. de Roode and K.-M. Xu, Marine low cloud sensitivity to an idealized climate change: The CGILS LES Intercomparison.J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 5, doi:10.1002/jame.20025.


Liu P., T Li, B. Wang, M. Zhang, J.-J. Luo, Y. Masumoto, X. Wang and E. Roeckner. 2012. MJO change with A1B global warming estimated by the 40-km ECHAM5. Climate Dynamics DOI: 10.1007/s00382-012-1532-8

Zhang, M.,et al., 2012: The CGILS experimental design to study low cloud feedbacks in general circulation models by using Single-Column and Large Eddy Simulation models. , J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 4, doi:10.1029/2012MS000182.

Liu, Hailong, Minghua Zhang, Wuyin Lin, 2012: An Investigation of the Initial Development of the Double-ITCZ Warm SST Biases in the CCSM. J. Climate, 25, 140–155. doi:

Yuan, W.,  Rucong Yu, Minghua Zhang, Wuyin Lin, Jian Li, Yunfei Fu, 2012: Diurnal cycle of summer precipitation over the subtropical East Asia in CAM5. Journal of Climate. doi:

Yuan, Weihua, Rucong Yu, Minghua Zhang, Wuyin Lin, Haoming Chen, Jian Li, 2012: Regimes of Diurnal Variation of Summer Rainfall over Subtropical East Asia. J. Climate, 25, 3307–3320. doi:

Fridlind, A. M., et al., 2012: A comparison of TWP-ICE observational data with cloud-resolving model results, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D05204, doi:10.1029/2011JD016595.


Gent P. R., G. Danabasoglu, L. Donner, M. Holland, E. Hunke, S. Jayne, D. Lawrence, R. Neale, P. Rasch, M. Vertenstein, P. Worley, Z-L. Yang, and M. Zhang, 2011: The Community Climate System Model version 4. J. Climate, 24, 4973–4991. doi:

Zeng, Xiping, Wei-Kuo Tao, Toshihisa Matsui, Shaocheng Xie, Stephen Lang, Minghua Zhang, David O’C Starr, Xiaowen Li, 2011: Estimating the Ice Crystal Enhancement Factor in the Tropics. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 1424–1434. doi:

Weihua Yuan, Rucong Yu, Haoming Chen, Jian Li, Minghua Zhang 2011, Subseasonal characteristics of diurnal variation in summer monsoon rainfall over central eastern China. Journal of Climate,  doi: 10.1175/2010JCLI3805

Liu, Hailong; Liu, Xiangcui; Zhang, Minghua, Wuyin Lin, 2011: A critical evaluation of the upper ocean heat budget in the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis data for the south central equatorial Pacific ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS  Volume: 6   Issue: 3, Article Number: 034022   DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034022   Published: JUL-SEP 2011.

Bony, S., M. Webb, C. Bretherton, S. Klein, P. Siebesma, G. Tselioudis, and M. Zhang, 2011: CFMIP: Towards a better evaluation and understanding of clouds and cloud feedbacks in CMIP5 models. CLIVAR Exchanges, No. 56, International CLIVAR Project Office, Southampton, United Kingdom, 20–24.

Minghua Zhang, 2011: Equilibrium and Transient Climate Response to Anthropogenic Forcing: the Impact of Atmospheric Feedback Processes.  Journal of the Transaction of Atmospheric Sciences, 2011, Vol. 34, No. 3, p12-23.


Lin, W. and M. Zhang, 2010: Reply to comments on “Seasonal Variation of the Physical Properties of Marine Boundary Layer Clouds off the California Coast” Journal of Climate, 10.1175/2010JCLI3483.1.

Zhang, M.,C.Bretherton, M. Webb, and P. Siebesma, 2010: CFMIP-GCSS Intercomparison of Large Eddy Models and Single Column Models (CGILS), GEWEX News, Vol. 20, No. 2, May 2010

Liu H., W. Lin, and M. Zhang, 2010: Heat Budget of the Upper Ocean in the South-Central Equatorial Pacific. Journal of Climate, Vol. 23, No. 7 , 1779-1792.

Xie, S., T. Hume, C. Jakob, S. A. Klein, R. McCoy, and M. Zhang, 2010: Observed large-scale structures and diabatic heating and drying profiles during TWP-ICE. J. Climate, 23:57–79.

Xu,K.M. A. Cheng, and M. Zhang, 2010: Cloud-Resolving Simulation of Low-Cloud Feedback to an Increase in Sea Surface Temperature. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 67, No. 3, 730-748.


Lin, Wuyin, Minghua Zhang, and Norman Loeb NG, 2009:  Seasonal Variation of the Physical Properties of Marine Boundary Layer Clouds off the California Coast. Journal of Climate, DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2478.1.

Zeng X, W Tao, M Zhang, AY Hou, S Xie, S Lang, X Li, DO Starr, and X Li. 2009. A contribution by ice nuclei to global warming. Quarterly Journal Royal Meteorological Society, 135, doi:10.1002/qj.449.

Lin, Wuyin, Minghua Zhang, and Jingbo Wu, 2009: Simulation of low clouds from the CAM and the regional WRF with multiple nested resolutions. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L08813, doi:10.1029/2008GL037088

Zeng, X., W.K. Tao, M. Zhang, A.Y. Hou, S. Xie, S. Lang, X. Li, D.O. Starr, X. Li, and J. Simpson, 2009: An Indirect Effect of Ice Nuclei on Atmospheric Radiation. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 41–61.


Zhang M, Bretherton C, 2008: Mechanisms of Low Cloud Climate Feedback in Idealized Single-Column Simulations with the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM3). Journal of Climate, DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2237.1

Bader D.C., C. Covey, W.J. Gutowski Jr., I.M. Held, K.E. Kunkel, R.L. Miller, R.T. Tokmakian and M.H. Zhang, 2008: Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research [(Authors)]. Department of Energy, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Washington, D.C., USA, 124 pp.

Schumacher C, Ciesielski PE, Zhang MH, 2008: Tropical cloud heating profiles: Analysis from KWAJEX. Monthly Weather Review: DOI: 10.1175/2008MWR2275.1

Zeng X., W.-K. Tao, S. Lang, A. Y. Hou, M. Zhang, and J. Simpson, 2008: On the sensitivity of atmospheric ensembles to cloud microphysics in long-term cloud-resolving model simulations. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 86, 45-65.


Zhang, X. H., W. Y. Lin, and M. H. Zhang, 2007: Toward Understanding the Double ITCZ Pathology in Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Models, J. Geophys. Res.,112, D12102, doi:10.1029/2006JD007878.

Song, H., and M. Zhang, 2007: Changes of the Boreal Winter Hadley Circulation in the NCEP–NCAR and ECMWF Reanalyses: A Comparative Study. J. Climate, 20, 5191–5200.

Zeng, X.., W-Kuo Tao, M. H. Zhang, C. P. Lidard, S. Lang, J. Simpson, S. Kumar, S. C. Xie, J. L. Eastman, C. L. Shie, and J. V. Geiger, 2007: Evaluating Clouds in Long-Term Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations with Observational Data, J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 4153–4177.

Wu, J.B., M. H. Zhang, and W. Y. Lin, 2007, A case study of a frontal system simulated by a climate model: Clouds and radiation, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D12201, doi:10.1029/2006JD008238.

Schumacher, C., M. Zhang, and P. Ciesielski, 2007:  Heating structures of the TRMM field campaignsJ. Atmos. Sci., 64, 2593–2610.


Zhang, M. H., and H. Song, 2006: Evidence of Deceleration of Atmospheric Vertical Overturning Circulation over the Tropical Pacific, Geophysical Research Letters. 33, L12701, doi:10.1029/2006GL025942.

Collins, D. W., P. J. Rasch, B. A. Boville, J. J. Hack, J. R. McCaa, D. L.Williamson, B. P. Briegleb, C. M. Bitz_ , S-J  Lin, and M. H. Zhang, 2006: The Formulation and Atmospheric Simulation of the Community Atmosphere Model: CAM3.  J. Climate, 19, 2144–2161.

Xie. S. C., S. A. Klein, M. H.  Zhang, J. J. Yio, R. T. Cederwall, and R. McCoy, 2006: Developing Large-Scale Forcing Data for Single-Column and Cloud-Resolving Models from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D19104, doi:10.1029/2005JD006950.

Xie, S., S. A. Klein, J. J. Yio, A. C. M. Beljaars, C. N. Long, and M. Zhang, 2006: An assessment of ECMWF analyses and model forecasts over the North Slope of Alaska using observations from the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment, J. Geophys. Res.,111, D05107, doi:10.1029/2005JD006509.


Zhang, M. H., W. Y. Lin, S. A. Klein, J. T. Bacmeister, S. Bony, R. T. Cederwall, A. D. Del Genio, J. J. Hack, N. G. Loeb, U. Lohmann, P. Minnis, I. Musat, R. Pincus, P.Stier, M. J. Suarez, M. J. Webb, J. B. Wu, S. C. Xie, M. -S. Yao, J. H. Zhang, 2005: Comparing Clouds And Their Seasonal Variations in 10 Atmospheric General Circulation Models with Satellite Measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15S02, doi:10.1029/2004JD005021.

Zhang, M. H., 2005: Cloud-climate feedback: lessons learned from two El Nino events, 332-348.  In “Frontiers in Climate Modeling” by Kiehl and Ramanathan.  Cambridge University Press, ISBN-10: 0521791324 ,367 pp.

Zhang, M., S. Klein, D. Randall, R. Cederwall, and A. Del Genio, 2005: Introduction to special section on Toward Reducing Cloud-Climate Uncertainties in Atmospheric General Circulation Models, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15S01, doi:10.1029/2005JD005923.

Xu, K., M. Zhang, Z. A. Eitzen, S. J. Ghan, S. A. Klein, X. Wu, S. Xie, M. Branson, A. D. Del Genio, S. F. Iacobellis, M. Khairoutdinov, W. Lin, U. Lohmann, D. A. Randall, R. C. J. Somerville, Y. C. Sud, G. K. Walker, A. Wolf, J. J. Yio, J. Zhang, 2005: Modeling springtime shallow frontal clouds with cloud-resolving and single-column models, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15S04, doi:10.1029/2004JD005153.

Lin, J.L., M. Zhang, and B. Mapes, 2005: Zonal Momentum Budget of the Madden–Julian Oscillation: The Source and Strength of Equivalent Linear Damping. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 2172–2188.

Xie, S., M. Zhang, M. Branson, R. T. Cederwall, A. D. Del Genio, Z. A. Eitzen, S. J. Ghan, S. F. Iacobellis, K. L. Johnson, M. Khairoutdinov, S. A. Klein, S. K. Krueger, W. Lin, U. Lohmann, M. A. Miller, D. A. Randall, R. C. J. Somerville, Y. C. Sud, G. K. Walker, A. Wolf, X. Wu, K.-M. Xu, J. J. Yio, G. Zhang, J. Zhang, 2005: Simulations of midlatitude frontal clouds by single-column and cloud-resolving models during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement March 2000 cloud intensive operational period, J. Geophys. Res.,110, D15S03, doi:10.1029/2004JD005119.


Zhang, M. H., 2004: Cloud-climate feedback, how much do we know? In “Observation, Theory, and Modeling of Atmospheric Variability”, edited by Zhu et al., World Scientific Series on Meteorology of East Asia, Vol. 3, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 2004, 632pp.

Lin, W. Y. and M. H. Zhang, 2004: Evaluation of clouds and their radiative effects simulated by the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model CAM2 against satellite observations. J. Climate, 17, 3302-3318.

Zhu, X,. et al., and M. H. Zhang, 2004: Observation, Theory, and Modeling of Atmospheric Variability,  World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 2004, 632pp.

Xie, S.,  M. H. Zhang, J. S. Boyle, R. T. Cederwall, G. L. Potter, and W. Y. Lin, 2004: Impact of a New Convective Triggering Mechanism on CAM2 Model Simulations: Results from Short-range Weather Forecasts.  J. Geophys. Res., 109, D14102, doi:10.1029/2004JD004692.

Zhou, X., M.A. Geller, and M. Zhang, 2004: Temperature Fields in the Tropical Tropopause Transition Layer. J. Climate, 17, 2901–2908.

Lin, J. L., B. Mapes, M. H. Zhang, M. Newman, 2004: Stratiform precipitation, vertical heating Profiles, and the Madden–Julian Oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci. Vol. 61, No. 3, pp. 296–309.

Xie S., R. T. Cederwall, M. Zhang, 2004: Developing long-term single-column model/cloud system–resolving model forcing data using numerical weather prediction products constrained by surface and top of the atmosphere observations, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D01104, doi:10.1029/2003JD004045.


Zhang, M., W. Lin, C. Bretherton, J. J. Hack, and P. J. Rasch, 2003: A modified formulation of fractional stratiform condensation rate in the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM2), J. Geophys. Res., 108(D1), 4035, doi:10.1029/2002JD002523.

Xie S., R. T. Cederwall, M. Zhang, J. J. Yio, 2003: Comparison of SCM and CSRM forcing data derived from the ECMWF model and from objective analysis at the ARM SGP site, J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D16), 4499, doi:10.1029/2003JD003541.

Wang, P-H, P. Minnis, B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, L. B. Vann, G. S. Kent, 2003: Characteristics of the 1997/1998 El Niño cloud distributions from SAGE II observations. J. Geophys. Res.  Vol. 108 No. D1 10.1029/2002JD002501.


Waliser, D. E., J. Ridout, S. Xie, and M. Zhang, 2002: Variational Objective Analysis for Atmospheric Field Programs: A Model Assessment, J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 3436-3456.

Xie et al., and M. H. Zhang, 2002: Intercomparison and evaluation of cumulus parameterization under summertime midlatitude continental conditions.   Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorology Society, 128, 1095-1135.

Xu et al., and M. H. Zhang, 2002: An intercomparison of cloud-resolving models with the ARM summer 1997 IOP data.  Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorology Society, 128, 593-624.

Geller, M. A., X. Zhou, and M. Zhang, 2002:  Simulations for interannual variability of stratospheric water vapor.  J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 1076-1085.


Zhang, M. H., J. L. Lin, R. T. Cederwall, J. J. Yio, and S. C. Xie, 2001: Objective analysis of the ARM IOP data: method and sensitivity. Monthly Weather Review. 129, 295-311.

Cess, R. D., M. H. Zhang, B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, X. L. Zhou, and Y. Nikitenko, 2001: The influence of the 1998 El Nino upon cloud radiative forcing over the Pacific warm pool.  J. Climate, 14, 2129-2137.

Zhou, X. L., M. A. Geller, and M. H. Zhang, 2001: The cooling trend of the tropical cold point tropopause temperatures and its implications. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 1511–1522.

Yu, R. C., M. H. Zhang, Y. Yu, and Y. Liu, 2001: Summer monsoon rainfalls over mid-eastern China lagged correlated with global SSTs.  Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 18, 179-196.

Cess, R. D., M. H. Zhang, P. H. Wang, and B. A. Wielicki, 2001: Cloud structure anomalies over the tropical Pacific during the 1997/98 El Nino.  Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 4547-4550.

Yu R. C., Y. Q. Yu, and M. H. Zhang, 2001: Comparing cloud radiative properties between the eastern China and the Indian monsoon region. Adv. Atmos. Sci, 18, 1090–1102.

Zhou, X. L., M. A. Geller, and M. Zhang, 2001: Tropical Cold Point Tropopause Characteristics Derived from ECMWF Reanalyses and Soundings, J. Climate, 14, 1823-1838.


Xie, S. C., and M. H. Zhang, 2000: Impact of the convection triggering function on single-column model simulations.  J. Geophys. Res., 105, D11, 14,983-14,996.

Zeng, Q.C., and M. H. Zhang, 2000: Wave-mean flow interaction: the role of continuous-spectrum disturbancesGhan, D. Randall, K.-M. Xu, R. Cederwall, D. Cripe, J. Hack, S. Iacobellis, S. Klein, S. Krueger, U. Lohmann, J. Pedretti, A. Robock, L. Rotstayn, R. Somerville, G. Stenchikov, Y. Sud, G. Walker, S. Xie, J. Yio, M. Zhang, 2000: A comparison of single column model simulations of summertime midlatitude continental convection, J. Geophys. Res., 105(D2), 2091–2124.

.  Advances in Atmos. Sci., 17, No. 1, 1-17.


Zhang, M. H., and  Q. C. Zeng, 1999: Discrete spectra and continuous spectrum of the barotropic quasi-geostrophic model–a calculation of meteorological data.  Advances in Atmos. Sci., 16, 487-506.

Yu, R.  M. H. Zhang, and R. D. Cess, 1999: Analysis of the atmospheric energy budget: A consistency study of available data sets, J. Geophys. Res.   VOL. 108, No.. D8,   9655–9661

Cess, R.D.,  M. H. Zhang, F.P.J. Valero, S.K. Pope, A. Bucholtz, B. Bush, C.S. Zender, and J. Vitko, Jr.  1999:  Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere:  Further interpretations of collocated aircraft measurements.  J. Geophys. Res., 104, 2059-2066.


Zhang, M. H., W. Y. Lin, and J. T Kiehl, 1998: Bias of atmospheric shortwave absorption in the NCAR CCM2 and CCM3: Comparison with monthly ERBE/GEBA measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 8919-8925.

Hameed, S. and M. H. Zhang, 1998: Chaos and predictability of climate.  J. Chaos and Bifurcation, 7, 2881-2890.

Lin, W. Y., M. H. Zhang, and M. A. Geller, 1998: Diabatic subsidence in the subtropical upper troposphere derived from SAGE II measurements.  Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 4181-4184.


Zhang, M. H., and J. L. Lin, 1997: Constrained variational analysis of sounding data based on column-integrated budgets of mass, heat, moisture and momentum: approach and application to ARM measurements,  J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 1503-1524.

Valero, P. J., R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, S. Pope, A. Bucholtz, B. Bush, J. Vitko, 1997: Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere: interpretation of collocated aircraft measurements.  J. Geophys. Res., 102, 29,917-29,927.

Cess, R. D., M. Zhang, G. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. Barker, S. Bony, R. Colman, D. Dazlich, A. Del Genio, M. Déqué, M. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. Fowler, J. Fraser, V. Galin, W. Gates, J. Hack, W. Ingram, J. Kiehl, Y. Kim, H. Le Treut, X.-Z. Liang, B. McAvaney, V. Meleshko, J. Morcrette, D. Randall, E. Roeckner, M. Schlesinger, P. Sporyshev, K. Taylor, B. Timbal, E. Volodin, W. Wang, W. Wang, R. Wetherald, 1997: Comparison of the seasonal change in cloud-radiative forcing from atmospheric general circulation models and satellite observations, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D14), 16,593–16,603.

Zhang. M. H., R. D. Cess, and X. D. Jing, 1997: Concerning the interpretation of enhanced cloud shortwave absorption using monthly-mean Earth Radiation Budget Experiemnt/Global Energy Balance Archive measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 25,899 – 25,905.

Zhang, M. H., and Q. C. Zeng, 1997: Discrete and continuous spectra of the barotropic quasi-geostrophic vorticity model, J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 1910-1922.

Geller, M., W. Shen, M. H. Zhang, and W. W. Tan, 1997: Calculation of the stratospheric QBO for time-varying forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 883-894.


Zhang, M. H., 1996: Implication of the convection-evaporation-wind feedback to surface climate simulation in climate models.  Climate Dynamics, 12, 299-312.

Zhang, M. H., R. D. Cess, S. C. Xie, 1996:  Relationships between sea surface temperatures and cloud-radiative-forcings over the entire tropical oceans.  J. Climate,  9, 1374-1384.

Cess, R. D., M. H. Zhang, Y. Zhou, X. Jing, and V. Dvortsov, 1996: Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: Interpretations of satellite, surface, and aircraft measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 101(D18), 23,299–23,309.

Cess, R. D., M. Zhang, W. Ingram, G. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. Colman, D. Dazlich, A. Del Genio, M. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. Fowler, J. Fraser, V. Galin, W. Gates, J. Hack, J. Kiehl, H. Le Treut, K.-W. Lo, B. McAvaney, V. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F. Royer, M. Schlesinger, P. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. Volodin, K. Taylor, W. Wang, R. Wetherald, 1996: Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update, J. Geophys. Res., 101,D8, 12791-12794.

Shen, W., M.A. Geller, and M. Zhang, 1996: Generalization of the Effect of Vertical Shear of Mean Zonal Flow on Tropical CISK-Wave Excitation. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 2166–2185.

Cess, R. D. and M. H. Zhang, 1996: How Much Solar Radiation Do Clouds Absorb? Science, 271: 1133-1134 , DOI: 10.1126/science.271.5252.1133.


Zhang, M. H., J. T. Kiehl, and J. J. Hack, 1995:  Cloud-radiative feedback as produced by different parameterizations of cloud emissivity in the NCAR CCM2.  In Climate Sensitivity to Radiative Perturbations: Mechanisms and Validation, Edited by Le Truet, NATO ASI Series, Vol. 34, 213-228,  Springer-Verlag.

Franz, M., and M. H. Zhang, 1995:  Suppression and creation of chaotic behavior in a periodically forced Lorenz system.  Physical Review  E,   52, 3558-3565.

Chen, M., R. D. Cess, and M.-H. Zhang, 1995: Effects of longwave cloud radiative forcing anomalies on the atmospheric response to equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies, J. Geophys. Res., 100(D7), 13,791–13,810.

Zhang, M. H., 1995: Conditional instability of the second kind (CISK).  In Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather, Edited by S. H. Schneider, Oxford University Press.

Zhang, M. H., 1995: Assessment of the SAGE sampling strategy in the derivation of tropospheric water vapor in a general circulation model.  Geophy. Res. Lett., 22, 1353-1356.

Kiehl, J, T., J. J. Hack, M. H. Zhang, and R. D. Cess, 1995: Sensitivity of a GCM climate to enhanced shortwave cloud absorption.  J. Climate,  8, 2200-2212.

Cess, R. D., M. H. Zhang, P. Minnis, L. Corsetti, E. G. Dutton, B. W. Forgan, D. P. Garber, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, E. F. Harrison, X. Jing, J. T. Kiehl, C. N. Long, J. J. Morcrette, G. L. Potter, V. Ramanathan, B. Subasilar, C. H. Whitlock, D. F. Young, and Y. Zhou, 1995:Absorption of solar radiation by clouds – observations versus models. Science, 267, 496-499.


Zhang, M. H., and M. A. Geller, 1994: Selective excitation of tropical atmospheric waves in wave-CISK: effect of vertical wind shear. J.  Atmos. Sci.,  51,  353-368.

Randall, D., R. Cess, J. Blanchet, S. Chalita, R. Colman, D. Dazlich, A. Del Genio, E. Keup, A. Lacis, H. Le Treut, X.-Z. Liang, B. McAvaney, J. Mahfouf, V. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, P. Norris, G. Potter, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. Royer, U. Schlese, D. Sheinin, A. Sokolov, K. Taylor, R. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M.-H. Zhang, 1994: Analysis of snow feedbacks in 14 general circulation models, J. Geophys. Res., 99(D10), 20,757–20,771.

Zhang, M. H., J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl  and R. D. Cess, 1994:  Diagnostic study of climate feedback processes in atmospheric general circulation models. J. Geophy.  Res.,  99,  5525-5537.

Zhang, M. H., R. D. Cess, T. Y. Kwon, and M. H. Chen, 1994: Approaches of comparison for clear-sky radiative-fluxes from general circulation models with Earth Radiation Budget Experiment data. J . Geophy. Res., 99,  5515-5523.


Cess, R. D., M. H. Zhang, and G. L. Potter, H. W. Barker, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. Esch, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, W. J. Ingram, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. Le Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, J. F. Mahfouf, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, A. P. Sokolov, P. V. Sporyshev, K. E. Taylor, W. C. Wang, R. T. Wetherald, 1993:Uncertainties in carbon dioxide radiative forcing in atmospheric general circulation models.  Science,  262,  1252-1255.


Randall, D., R. D.Cess,  J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer,  D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. Deque, V. Dimnikov, V. Galin, S. J. Ghan,  A. A. Lacis, H. Le Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang,  B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, G. L. Potter, L. Rikus,  E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin,  J. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Whashington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai,  and M. H. Zhang, 1992: Intercomparison and  interpretation of surface energy fluxes in atmospheric general circulation models. J.  Geophys. Res,  97,  3711-3724.


Cess, R. D, G. L. Potter, M. H. Zhang, J. P. Blanchet, S. Chalita, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, V. Dimnikov, V. Galin, D. Jerrett, E. Keup, A. A. Lacis, H. Le Treut, X. Z. Liang, J. F. Mahfouf,  B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. J. Morcrette, P. M. Norris, D. A. Randall,  L. Rikus,  E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, J. M. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, and I. Yagai, 1991:  Interpretation of snow-climate feedback as produced by 17 general circulation modelsScience,   253, 888-892.

1990 and before

Cess, R. D., G. L .Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. Del Genio, M. Deque, V. Dimnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan,  J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. Le Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang,  B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette,  L. Rikus,  E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin,  A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai,  and M. H. Zhang, 1990: Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models. J.  Geophys. Res.,  95,  16601-16615.

Zeng, Q. C., X. Z. Liang and M. H. Zhang, 1988: Seasonal Abrupt Changes of the General Circulation of Atmosphere and Their Numerical Simulation. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences,  10., 323-333.

Zhang, M. H., 1987: Effects of Tibet Plateau on the Rainy Season Atmospheric Circulation over East Asia. Journal of  the Nanking Institute of Meteorology,  10, 253-267.

Zhu, Q. G., J. Zhou, and M. H. Zhang, 1986: Characteristics of sea-land breezes along the southeast coast of China.  In “Monsoon over the South China Sea” edited by J. J. Zhang, Chinese Meteorological Press.

Ma, S. C., and M. H. Zhang, 1986: The dynamical pressure contribution to mesoscale high in a thunderstorm.  Journal of  the Nanking Institute of Meteorology,  9, 151-159.


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